Published Research and Review Articles in Energy Psychology
This section contains a listing of recently published research, followed by a listing of published case studies, in the field of Energy Psychology, in reverse chronological order. Revised November 2010.
The Immediate Effect of a Brief Energy Psychology Intervention (EFT) on Specific Phobias: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Maria Salas, PhD, Audrey J. Brooks, PhD, Jack E. Rowe, PhD. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, in press: scheduled for 2011 publication.
This study examined whether Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT), a brief exposure therapy that combines cognitive and somatic elements, had an immediate effect on the reduction of anxiety and behavior associated with specific phobias. The present study utilized a cross-over design with participants (N=22) randomly assigned to either diaphragmatic breathing or EFT as the first treatment. Study measures included a behavioral approach test, Subjective Units of Distress Scale, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. EFT significantly reduced phobia-related anxiety and ability to approach the feared stimulus whether presented as an initial treatment or following diaphragmatic breathing. When presented as the initial treatment, the effects of EFT remained through the presentation of the comparison intervention. Further study of EFT for specific phobias is warranted.
Combining brief psychological exposure with the manual stimulation of acupuncture points (acupoints) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other emotional conditions is an intervention strategy that integrates established clinical principles with methods derived from healing traditions of Eastern cultures. Two randomized controlled trials and six outcome studies using standardized pre- and post-treatment measures with military veterans, disaster survivors, and other traumatized individuals corroborate anecdotal reports and systematic clinical observation in suggesting that (a) tapping on selected acupoints (b) during imaginal exposure (c) quickly and permanently reduces maladaptive fear responses to traumatic memories and related cues. The approach has been controversial. This is in part because the mechanisms by which stimulating acupoints can contribute to the treatment of serious or longstanding psychological disorders have not been established. Speculating on such mechanisms, the current paper suggests that adding acupoint stimulation to psychological exposure is unusually effective in its speed and power because deactivating signals are sent directly to the amygdala, resulting in reciprocal inhibition and the rapid attenuation of maladaptive fear. This formulation and the preliminary evidence supporting it could, if confirmed, lead to more powerful exposure protocols for treating PTSD.
David Feinstein & Dawson Church.
Review of General Psychology, 2010 December, an American Psychological Association journal Mapping the relationship between gene expression and psychopathology is proving to be among the most promising new frontiers for advancing the understanding, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders. Each cell in the human body contains some 23,688 genes, yet only a tiny fraction of a cell’s genes are active or “expressed” at any given moment. The interactions of biochemical, psychological, and environmental factors influencing gene expression are complex, yet relatively accessible technologies for assessing gene expression have allowed the identification of specific genes implicated in a range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Moreover, successful psychotherapeutic interventions have been shown to shift patterns of gene expression. Five areas of biological change in successful psychotherapy that are dependent upon precise shifts in gene expression are identified in this paper. Psychotherapy ameliorates (a) exaggerated limbic system responses to innocuous stimuli, (b) distortions in learning and memory, (c) imbalances between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity, (d) elevated levels of cortisol and other stress hormones, and (e) impaired immune functioning. The thesis of this paper is that psychotherapies which utilize non-invasive somatic interventions may yield greater precision and power in bringing about therapeutically beneficial shifts in gene expression that control these biological markers. The paper examines the manual stimulation of acupuncture points during psychological exposure as an example of such a somatic intervention. For each of the five areas, a testable proposition is presented to encourage research that compares acupoint protocols with conventional therapies in catalyzing advantageous shifts in gene expression. Keywords: Acupuncture, DNA, Epigenetics, Exposure, Gene Expression.
Your DNA is Not Your Destiny: Behavioral Epigenetics and the Role of Emotions in Health
Dawson Church, PhD Anti Aging Medical Therapeutics, (2010, October), 13.
In a series of studies published in 2000 and later, researchers began to demonstrate the importance of epigenetic influences on gene expression. Genes might be silenced through methylation, or their expression facilitated by acetylization. A further step occurred when behaviors and psychological states were noted to regulate the activity of genes. A body of evidence has now been accumulated that assesses the specific genes affected by behavioral influences such as nurturing, by lifestyle interventions such as meditation, by emotions, and by alleviating psychological conditions such as depression, anxiety and PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Comparisons of the relative lengths of telomeres in identical twins, who start life with identical genes, show that emotional stress can result in one twin having a cellular age that is as much as 10 years older by age 40. New studies in the field of energy psychology also indicate that these psychological and emotional stressors may be remediated much more rapidly than previously believed possible, and that behavioral and psychological influences regulate the genes responsible for inflammation, immune function, and cellular regeneration, among others. These advances provide fruitful new avenues for research into the epigenetic properties of simple behavioral and emotional skills such as meditation, the Relaxation Response, and EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques), and point to the potential of these methods as potent anti-aging and medical interventions.
Single Session EFT for Stress-Related Symptoms After Motor Vehicle Accidents
Larry Burke, MD Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, & Treatment, (2010), 2(1), 65-72.
Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are a common cause of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Energy psychology (EP) approaches such as EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) are a new form of exposure therapy used to treat PTSD from a variety of different causes. These techniques provide an attractive alternative to more well-established approaches such as cognitive behavioral therapy because of their potential for accelerated healing similar to what has been demonstrated with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. There are only a few reports in the literature of the use of EP for the treatment of PTSD resulting from MVA. This clinical report presents 3 case histories documenting the use of single-session EFT for the treatment of acute psychological trauma immediately after a car accident, urticaria as a component of acute stress disorder 2 weeks after a car accident, and PTSD and whiplash syndrome 11 months after a car accident. These cases are discussed in the context of a review of the current literature on PTSD after MVA and are followed by recommendations for future research.
Keywords: motor vehicle accidents, PTSD, trauma, EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques).
This paper describes an intervention called Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT). EFT is a brief exposure therapy combining cognitive and somatic elements and focuses on resolving emotional trauma that might underlie a presenting condition. Research indicates that EFT is an effective treatment for anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, phobias, and other psychological disorders, as well as certain physical complaints. This article describes the techniques, how EFT is taught in a workshop setting, and provides case examples. The clinical benefits of EFT and future research directions are discussed.
Controversies in energy psychology. Feinstein, D.
(2009). Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, and Treatment. 1:1.
In the nearly three decades since tapping on acupuncture points was introduced as a method psychotherapists could use in the treatment of anxiety disorders and other emotional concerns, more than 30 variations of the approach have emerged. Collectively referred to as energy psychology (EP), reports of unusual speed, range, and durability of clinical outcomes have been provocative. Enthusiasts believe EP to be a major breakthrough while skeptics believe the claims are improbable and certainly have not been substantiated with ad- equate data or explanatory models. Additional controversies exist among EP practitioners. This paper addresses the field’s credibility problems among mental health professionals as well as controversies within EP regarding (a) its most viable explanatory models, (b) its most effective protocols, (c) how the approach interfaces with other forms of clinical practice, (d) the conditions it can treat effectively, (e) what should be done when the method does not seem to work, and (f) how the professional community should respond to the large number of practitioners who do not have mental health credentials.
The Neurochemistry of Counter-Conditioning: Acupressure Desensitization in Psychotherapy.
Lane, James R.
(2009). Energy Psychology: Theory, Research and Treatment. 1:1.
A growing body of literature indicates that imaginal exposure, paired with acupressure, reduces midbrain hyperarousal and counterconditions anxiety and traumatic memories. Recent research indicates that manual stimulation of acupuncture points produces opioids, serotonin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and regulates cortisol. These neurochemical changes reduce pain, slow the heart rate, decrease anxiety, shut off the fight/flight/freeze response, regulate the autonomic nervous system, and create a sense of calm. This relaxation response reciprocally inhibits anxiety and creates a rapid desensitization to traumatic stimuli. This paper explores the neurochemistry of the types of acupressure counterconditioning used in energy psychology and provides explanations for the mechanisms of actions of these therapies, based upon currently accepted paradigms of brain function, behavioral psychology, and biochemistry.
Energy Psychology Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress in Genocide Survivors in a Rwandan Orphanage: A Pilot Investigation.
Barbara Stone, Lori Leyden, & Bert Fellows.
(2009). Energy Psychology: Theory, Research and Treatment, 1:1.
A team of four energy therapy practitioners visited Rwanda in September of 2009 to conduct trauma remediation programs with orphan genocide survivors with complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The program consisted of holistic, multi-dimensional rapport-building exercises, followed by an intervention using Thought Field Therapy (TFT). Interventions were performed on three consecutive days. Data were collected using the Child Report of Posttraumatic Stress (CROPS) to measure pre- and post-intervention results, using a time-series, repeated measures design. N = 48 orphans at the Remera Mbogo Residential High School Orphanage with clinical PTSD scores completed a pretest. Of these, 34 (71%) completed a posttest assessment. They demonstrated an average reduction in symptoms of 18.8% (p < .001). Seven students (21%) dropped below the clinical cutoff point for PTSD, with average score reductions of 53.7% (p < .001). Follow-ups are planned, to determine if participant gains hold over time. Directions for future research arising out of data gathered in this pilot study are discussed.
Energy Psychology in Rehabilitation: Origins, Clinical Applications, and Theory. Gallo, Fred
(2009) Energy Psychology: Theory, Research and Treatment. 1(1).
Three forces have dominated psychology and psychological treatment at different times since the early 1900s. The first force was Freudian psychoanalysis and its offshoots that focus on unconscious psychodynamics and developmental fixations, with principal therapeutic techniques including free association, dream analysis, interpretation, and abreaction. Second came behaviorism, spearheaded by Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner, which emphasized environmental stimuli and conditioning—its techniques including respondent and operant conditioning, exposure, desensitization, schedules of reinforcement, modeling, and more. The third force involved humanistic and transpersonal approaches that attend to values and choice, including client-centered therapy, gestalt therapy, phenomenology, and cognitive therapy, some of the principal leaders being Rogers, Maslow, Perls, Rollo May, Binswanger, and Ellis. Recently the new paradigm of energy psychology has emerged, which may be considered psychology’s fourth force. The earliest pioneers included Goodheart, Diamond, and Callahan. This theoretical and practice approach offers the field some unique findings, as it views psychological problems as body–mind interactions and bioenergy fields, providing treatments that directly and efficiently address these substrates. Some of energy psychology’s techniques include stimulating acupoints and chakras, specific body postures, affirmations, imagery, manual muscle testing, and an emphasis on intention. This review covers energy psychology’s historical development and experimental evidence base. Case illustrations and treatment protocols are discussed for the treatment of psychological trauma and physical pain, two of the most important and ubiquitous aspects common to rehabilitation conditions. Additionally, the research on energy psychology is highlighted, and the distinction between global treatments and causal energy diagnostic-treatment approaches to treatment is addressed.
Integrating Energy Psychology into Treatment for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse
By Kirsten Schulz.
(2009). Energy Psychology: Theory, Research and Treatment. 1:1.
This study evaluated the experiences of 12 therapists who integrated energy psychology (EP) into their treatments for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Participants completed an online survey and the qualitative data was analyzed using the Constant Comparative method. Seven categories containing 6 themes emerged as a result of this analysis. The categories included: () Learning about EP; (2) diagnosis and treatment of adult CSA using EP; (3) treatment effectiveness of EP; (4) relating to clients from an EP perspective; (5) resistance to EP; (6) the evolution of EP; and (7) therapists’ experiences and attitudes about EP. These themes are compared and con- trasted with existing literature. Clinical impli- cations are discussed, as well as suggestions for future research. The results provide guidelines for therapists considering incorporating these techniques into their practices.
Elimination of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Other Psychiatric Symptoms in a Disabled Vietnam Veteran with Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) in Just Six Sessions Using Healing from the Body Level Up Methodology, an Energy Psychology Approach
Judith A. Swack, PhD
International Journal of Healing and Caring, September 2009, 9(3).
Increasing numbers of returning veterans and veterans of previous conflicts are being diagnosed with depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other psychological problems caused by military service. It is important to develop brief and effective treatment methods to facilitate reentry into civilian life. Energy psychology techniques have been found effective for rapidly treating trauma. This case study describes the results of treatment of a Vietnam Veteran for PTSD and other psychiatric symptoms with Healing from the Body Level Up (HBLUTM) methodology, an approach from the field of Energy Psychology. The patient, a Navy Seal, sustained a bullet wound to the skull in Vietnam, and later sustained separate, severe injuries to the brain requiring four rounds of surgery 1990 - 1994. The Veteran’s administration diagnosed him 100% disabled. His symptoms were assessed using the SA-45, a well-validated instrument for measuring anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive behavior, phobic anxiety, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoia, psychosis, and somatization; and the PCL-M, the military assessment for PTSD. Testing was done just prior to treatment and 2 months post-treatment. After three double sessions over a period of three months, he demonstrated complete recovery from PTSD and a return to normalcy in all nine areas of formal psychological test evaluation.
Key Words: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, Vietnam Veteran, Traumatic Brain Injury, TBI, Healing from the Body Level Up, HBLU, Energy Psychology
Pilot study of Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT), Wholistic Hybrid derived from EMDR and EFT (WHEE) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Treatment of Test Anxiety in University Students.
Benor, D. J., Ledger, K., Toussaint, L., Hett, G., & Zaccaro, D. Explore, November/December 2009, Vol. 5, No. 6.
Objective: This study explored test anxiety benefits of Wholistic Hybrid derived from EMDR (WHEE), Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT), and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.
Participants: Canadian university students with severe or moderate test anxiety participated.
Methods: A double-blind, controlled trial of WHEE (n = 5), EFT (n =5), and CBT (n = 5) was conducted. Standardized anxiety measures included: the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) and Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-21).
Results: Despite small sample size, significant reductions were found for WHEE on the TAI (p < 0.014-.042) and HSCL-21 (p < 0.029); on the TAI (p < 0.001-.027) for EFT; and on the HSCL-21 (p < 0.038) for CBT. There were no significant differences between the scores for the three treatments. In only two sessions WHEE and EFT achieved the same or better benefits as CBT did in five sessions. Participants reported high satisfaction with all treatments. EFT and WHEE students successfully transferred their self-treatment skills to other stressful areas of their lives.
Conclusions: WHEE and EFT show promise as effective treatments for test anxiety.
Theoretical and methodological problems in research on Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) and other meridian based therapies. Baker, A. H., Carrington, P., & Putilin, D. (2009). Psychology Journal, 6(2), 34-46.
Controlled research into Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) and other meridian-based therapies is at its beginnings. We examined several issues facing EFT researchers, including: the number and type of dependent measures; expectancy effects; the need for follow-up assessment; a newly proposed procedure for keeping participants blind; the duration of the intervention; the value of treating the hypothesized Energy Meridian System and EFT’s operations as separate constructs; and the possibility that EFT’s efficacy is mediated by processes long known to be associated with psychotherapy. Such issues are considered in the context of three recent EFT studies: Waite and Holder (2003); Wells et al. (2003); and Baker and Siegel (2005). Some
limitations of these studies are delineated and guidelines on EFT research are suggested.
The Treatment of Combat Trauma in Veterans using EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques): A Pilot Protocol.
Church, Dawson. (2009). Traumatology, March 2009, 15:1.
With a large number of US military service personnel coming back from Iraq with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and a variety of associated psychological problems, a need exists to find protocols and treatments that are effective for these conditions in brief treatment timeframes. In this study, a sample of 11 veterans and family members were assessed for PTSD and other conditions. Evaluations were made using standard psychological evaluations, the SA-45 (Symptom Assessment 45) and the PCL-M (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Military). The study used a time-series, within-subjects, repeated measures design. A baseline measurement was obtained thirty days prior to treatment, and immediately before treatment began. Subjects were then treated with a brief and novel exposure therapy, EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques), for five days with 2 to 3 hours of treatment per day. Statistically significant improvements in the SA-45 and PCL-M scores were found at posttest. These gains were maintained at both the 30- and 90-day follow-ups on the general symptom index, positive symptom total and the anxiety, somatization, phobic anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity subscales of the SA-45, and on PTSD. The remaining SA-45 scales improved posttest but were not consistently maintained at the 30- and 90-day follow-ups. In summary, after EFT treatment, the group no longer scored positive for PTSD, the severity and breadth of their psychological distress decreased significantly, and most of their gains held over time. This suggests that EFT can be an effective post-deployment intervention.
The Effect of Two Psychophysiological Techniques (Progressive Muscular Relaxation and Emotional Freedom Techniques) on Test Anxiety in High School Students: A Randomized Blind Controlled Study.
Sezgin, N., Ozcan, B., Church, D., International Journal of Healing and Caring, Jan 2009, 9:1.
This study investigated the effect on test anxiety of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT), a brief exposure therapy with somatic and cognitive components. A group of 312 high school students enrolled at a private academy was evaluated using the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI), which contains subscales for worry and emotionality. Scores for 70 demonstrated high levels of test anxiety; these students were randomized into control and experimental groups. During the course of a single treatment session, the control group received instruction in Progressive Muscular Relaxation (PMR); the experimental group, EFT, followed by self-treatment at home. After two months, subjects were re-tested using the TAI. Repeated covariance analysis was performed to determine the effects of EFT and PMR on the mean TAI score, as well as the two subscales. Each group completed a sample examination at the beginning and end of the study, and their mean scores were computed. Thirty-two of the initial 70 subjects completed all the study’s requirements, and all statistical analyses were done on this group. A statistically significant decrease occurred in the test anxiety scores of both the experimental and control groups. The EFT group had a significantly greater decrease than the PMR group (p < .05). The scores of the EFT group were lower on the emotionality and worry subscales (p < .05). Both groups scored higher on the test examinations after treatment; though the improvement was greater for the EFT group, the difference was not statistically significant.
Psychological symptom change in veterans after six sessions of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques):
An observational study.
Church, D., & Geronilla, L. International Journal of Healing and Caring, January 2009, 9:1.
Protocols to treat veterans with brief courses of therapy are required, in light of the large numbers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan with depression, anxiety, PTSD and other conditions. This observational study examined the effects of six sessions of EFT on seven veterans, using a within-subjects, time-series, repeated measures design. Participants were assessed using a well validated instrument, the SA-45, which has general scales measuring the depth and severity of psychological symptoms. It also contains subscales for anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive behavior, phobic anxiety, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoia, psychotism, and somatization. Participants were assessed before and after treatment, and again after 90 days. Interventions were done by two different practitioners using a standardized form of EFT to address traumatic combat memories. Symptom severity decreased significantly by 40% (p<.001), while breadth of symptoms decreased by 29% (p<.032). Anxiety decreased 46% (p<.003), depression 49% (p<.001), and PTSD 50% (p<.026). Most gains were maintained at the 90-day follow-up.
Change Is Possible: EFT with Life-Sentence and Veteran Prisoners at San Quentin State Prison
Hari Lubin & Tiffany Schneider, PhD
Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, & Treatment, (2009), 1(1), 83-88.
Counseling with prisoners presents unique challenges and opportunities. For the past seven years, a project called “Change Is Possible” has offered EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) counseling to life sentence and war veteran inmates through the education department of San Quentin State Prison in California. Prisoners receive a series of five sessions from an EFT practitioner, with a three session supplement one month later. Emotionally-triggering events, and the degree of intensity associated with them, are self-identified before and after EFT. Underlying core beliefs and values are also identified. In this report, the EFT protocol and considerations specific to this population are discussed. Prisoner statements are included, to reveal self-reported changes in their impulse control, intensity of reaction to triggers, somatic symptomatology, sense of personal responsibility, and positive engagement in the prison community. Future research is outlined, including working within the requirements specific to a prison population in a manner that permits the collection of empirical data.
Self-administered EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) in individuals with fibromyalgia: a randomized trial.
Brattberg, G. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal, August/September. (2008).
The aim of this study was to examine if self-administered EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) leads to reduced pain perception, increased acceptance, coping ability and health-related quality of life in individuals with fibromyalgia. 86 women, diagnosed with fibromyalgia and on sick leave for at least 3 months, were randomly assigned to a treatment group or a waiting list group. An eight-week EFT treatment program was administered via the Internet Upon completion of the program, statistically significant improvements were observed in the intervention group (n=26) in comparison with the waiting list group (n=36) for variables such as pain, anxiety, depression, vitality, social function, mental health, performance problems involving work or other activities due to physical as well as emotional reasons, and stress symptoms. Pain catastrophizing measures, such as rumination, magnification and helplessness, were significantly reduced, and the activity level was significantly increased. The number needed to treat (NNT) regarding recovering from anxiety was 3. NNT for depression was 4.
Self-administered EFT seems to be a good complement to other treatments and rehabilitation programs. The sample size was small and the dropout rate was high. Therefore the surprisingly good results have to be interpreted with caution. However, it would be of interest to further study this simple and easily accessible self-administered treatment method, which can even be taught over the Internet.
Energy psychology utilizes imaginal and narrative-generated exposure, paired with interventions that reduce hyperarousal through acupressure and related techniques. According to practitioners, this leads to treatment outcomes that are more rapid, powerful, and precise than the strategies used in other exposure-based treatments such as relaxation or diaphragmatic breathing. The method has been exceedingly controversial. It relies on unfamiliar procedures adapted from non- Western cultures, posits unverified mechanisms of action, and early claims of unusual speed and therapeutic power ran far ahead of initial empirical support. This paper reviews a hierarchy of evidence regarding the efficacy of energy psychology, from anecdotal reports to randomized clinical trials. Although the evidence is still preliminary, energy psychology has reached the minimum threshold for being designated as an evidence-based treatment, with one form having met the APA Division 12 criteria as a “probably efficacious treatment” for specific phobias; another for maintaining weight loss. The limited scientific evidence, combined with extensive clinical reports, suggests that energy psychology holds promise as a rapid and potent treatment for a range of psychological conditions.
Energy psychology in disaster relief.
Feinstein, D. Traumatology 141:1, 124-137. (2008b)
Energy psychology utilizes cognitive operations such as imaginal exposure to traumatic memories or visualization of optimal performance scenarios—combined with physical interventions derived from acupuncture, yoga, and related systems—for inducing psychological change. While a controversial approach, this combination purportedly brings about, with unusual speed and precision, therapeutic shifts in affective, cognitive, and behavioral patterns that underlie a range of psychological concerns. Energy psychology has been applied in the wake of natural and human-made disasters in the Congo, Guatemala, Indonesia, Kenya, Kosovo, Kuwait, Mexico, Moldavia, Nairobi, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, and the U.S. At least three international humanitarian relief organizations have adapted energy psychology as a treatment in their post-disaster missions. Four tiers of energy psychology interventions include 1) immediate relief/stabilization, 2) extinguishing conditioned responses, 3) overcoming complex psychological problems, and 4) promoting optimal functioning. The first tier is most pertinent in psychological first aid immediately following a disaster, with the subsequent tiers progressively being introduced over time with complex stress reactions and chronic disorders. This paper reviews the approach, considers its viability, and offers a framework for applying energy psychology in treating disaster survivors.
Thought field therapy and QEEG changes in the treatment of trauma: A case study.
Diepold, J. H., & Goldstein, D. (2008). Traumatology, 15, 85 – 93.
As identified by quantitative electroencephalography,statistically abnormal brain wave patterns were observed when a person thought about a trauma when compared with thinking about a neutral (baseline) event. Reassessment of brain wave patterns (to the traumatic memory) immediately after thought field therapy diagnosis and treatment revealed that the previous abnormal pattern was altered and was no longer statistically abnormal. An 18-month follow-up indicated that the patient continued to be free of all emotional upset regarding the treated trauma. This case study supports the concept that trauma-based negative emotions do have a correlated and measurable abnormal energetic effect. In addition, this study objectively identified an immediate energetic change after thought field therapy in the direction of normalcy and health, which has persisted.
Encoding States: A Model for the Origin and Treatment of Complex Psychogenic Pain Ruden, R. A. (2008). Traumatology, Vol. 14, No. 1, 119-126.
Pain that is "unanatomical" in distribution, for which thereis no recent history of trauma, no evidence of a peripherallesion and that resists traditional treatment, should be consideredto be of psychogenic origin. The term complex psychogenic paincan be used when autonomic changes such as temperature abnormalitiesand physical findings such as tenderness accompany the pain.It is proposed that complex psychogenic pain is co-encoded centrallyduring a traumatizing event where the person experiences rageor fear with concomitant pain but is constrained from respondingto the circumstances. Complex psychogenic pain is encoded asdissociated from the event. However, subsequent subconsciousstimuli that recreate similar emotional, somatosensory, or cognitivestates can activate a re-perception of the traumatic pain andengage various vasomotor processes. It is speculated that complexpsychogenic pain is generated from amygdala efferents and isencoded in such a manner that precludes simple forgetting. Therapyconsists of either delinkng the amygdala-based connection betweenthe memory of the event and the emotional/somatosensory responseor directly inhibiting amygdala outflow. Successful therapyextinguishes the pain.
Randomized Trial of Two Mind–Body Interventions for Weight-Loss Maintenance