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Research Studies and Review Articles

in Energy Psychology

Published in Peer Reviewed Journals

or Presented at International Conferences

 

                         Revised July 2012.

 

 

Church, D., De Asis, M., & Brooks, A. J. (2012). Brief group intervention using EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) for depression in college students:  A randomized controlled trial.  Depression Research & Treatment, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/257172 

Two hundred thirty-eight first-year college students were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Thirty students meeting the BDI criteria for moderate to severe depression were randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group. The treatment group received four 90-minute group sessions of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques), a novel treatment that combines exposure, cognitive reprocessing, and somatic stimulation. The control group received no treatment. Posttests were conducted 3 weeks later on those that completed all requirements (N = 18). The EFT group (n = 9) had significantly more depression at baseline than the control group (n = 9) (EFT BDI Mean = 23.44, SD = 2.1 vs. control BDI Mean = 20.33, SD = 2.1). After controlling for baseline BDI score, the EFT group had significantly less depression than the control group at posttest, with a mean score in the "non-depressed” range (p = .001; EFT BDI Mean = 6.08, SE = 1.8 vs. control BDI Mean = 18.04, SE = 1.8). Cohen’s d was 2.28, indicating a very strong effect size. These results are consistent with those noted in other studies of EFT that included an assessment for depression, and indicate the clinical usefulness of EFT as a brief, cost-effective, and efficacious treatment.

 

Church, D., Feinstein, D.  (2012).   The psychobiology and clinical principles of energy
            psychology treatments for PTSD: A review.   Psychology of Trauma, (in press).

Energy Psychology (EP) protocols use elements of established therapies such as exposure and cognitive processing, and combines these with the stimulation of acupuncture points. EP methods such as EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) and TFT (Thought Field Therapy) have been extensively tested in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Randomized controlled trials and outcome studies assessing PTSD and co-morbid conditions have demonstrated the efficacy of EP in populations ranging from war veterans to disaster survivors to institutionalized orphans. Studies investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of action of EP suggest that it quickly and permanently mediates the brain’s fear response to traumatic memories and environmental cues. This review examines the published trials of EP for PTSD and the physiological underpinnings of the method, and concludes by describing seven clinical implications for the professional community. These are: (1) The limited number of treatment sessions usually required to remediate PTSD; (2) The depth, breadth, and longevity of treatment effects; (3) The low risk of adverse events; (4) The limited commitment to training required for basic application of the method; (5) Its efficacy when delivered in group format; (6) Its simultaneous effect on a wide range of psychological and physiological symptoms, and (7) Its suitability for non-traditional delivery methods such as online and telephone sessions.

Church, D., Hawk, C, Brooks, A., Toukolehto, O., Wren, M., Dinter, I., Stein, P.
            (2012).  Psychological trauma symptom improvement in veterans using EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques): A randomized controlled trial.                           Accepted for publication by the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.

This study examined the effect of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT), a brief exposure therapy combining cognitive and somatic elements, on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychological distress symptoms in veterans receiving mental health services. Veterans meeting the clinical criteria for PTSD were randomized to EFT (n = 30) or standard of care wait list (SOC/WL; n = 29). The EFT intervention consisted of 6 hour-long EFT coaching sessions concurrent with standard care. The SOC/WL and EFT groups were compared pre- and posttest (at 1 month for the SOC/WL group, after 6 sessions for EFT group). EFT subjects had significantly reduced psychological distress (p < .0012) and PTSD symptom levels (p < .0001) posttest. In addition, 90% of the EFT group no longer met PTSD clinical criteria, compared with 4% in SOC/WL. Following the wait period, SOC/WL subjects received EFT. In a within-subjects longitudinal analysis, 60% no longer met PTSD clinical criteria after 3 sessions. This increased to 86% after 6 sessions for the 49 subjects who ultimately received EFT, and remained at 86% at 3-months and 80% at 6-months. The results are consistent with other published reports showing EFTs efficacy at treating PTSD and co-morbid symptoms and its long-term effects.

Church, D., Piña, O., Reategui, C., & Brooks, A. (2011). Single session reduction of the intensity of traumatic memories in abused adolescents after EFT: A  randomized controlled pilot study. Traumatology. doi:10.1177/1534765611426788

The population for this study was drawn from an institution to which juveniles are sent by court order if they are found by a judge to be physically or psychologically abused at home. Sixteen males, aged 12 – 17, were randomized into two groups. They were assessed using subjective distress (SUD), and the Impact of Events scale (IES), which measures two components of PTSD: intrusive memories and avoidance symptoms. The experimental group was treated with a single session of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques), a brief and novel exposure therapy that has been found efficacious in reducing PTSD and co-occurring psychological symptoms in adults, but has not been subject to empirical assessment in juveniles. The wait list control group received no treatment. Thirty days later subjects were reassessed. No improvement occurred in the wait list (IES total mean pre=32 SD ±4.82, post=31 SD ±3.84). Posttest scores for all experimental group subjects improved to the point where all were non-clinical on the total score (IES total mean pre=36 SD ±4.74, post=3 SD ±2.60, p<0.001), as well as the intrusive and avoidant symptom subscales, and SUD. These results are consistent with those found in adults, and indicates the utility of single-session EFT as a fast and effective intervention for reducing psychological trauma in juveniles.

Darby, D. & Hartung, J. (2012).  Thought field therapy for blood-injection-injury phobia: A pilot  study. Energy Psychology Journal, 4(1), 25-32.

Blood-injection-injury phobia, or needle phobia, may affect 10% of a population, at times leading to life-threatening impairment when people avoid needle-mediated prevention or treatment. Twenty needle-phobic persons, serving as their own controls, were treated for 1 hr with Thought Field Therapy (TFT). Symptoms were assessed using the Fear Schedule Survey and a Likert scale. SigniÞ cant improvement in symptoms was noted from pre- to posttest and on 1-month follow-up. The results are consistent with other reports of TFT’s efÞ cacy in reducing fear symptoms and warrant the design of a randomized trial to determine whether TFT is efficacious when tested under controlled conditions.

 

Feinstein, D.   (2012).  Acupoint stimulation in treating psychological disorders: Evidence of
            Efficacy.  Accepted for publication in the Review of General Psychology.

Energy psychology is a clinical and self-help modality that combines verbal and physical procedures for effecting therapeutic change. While utilizing established clinical methods such as exposure and cognitive restructuring, the approach also incorporates concepts and techniques from non-Western healing systems. Its most frequently utilized protocols combine the stimulation of acupuncture points (by tapping on, holding, or massaging them) with the mental activation of a targeted psychological issue. Energy psychology has been controversial, in part due to its reliance on explanatory mechanisms that are outside of conventional clinical frameworks and in part because of claims by its early proponents—without adequate research support—of extraordinary speed and power in attaining positive clinical outcomes. This paper revisits some of the field’s early claims, as well as current practices, and assesses them in the context of existing evidence. A literature search identified 50 peer-reviewed papers that report or investigate clinical outcomes following the tapping of acupuncture points to address psychological issues. The 17 randomized controlled trials in this sample were critically evaluated for design quality, leading to the conclusion that they consistently demonstrated strong effect sizes and other positive statistical results that far exceed chance after relatively few treatment sessions. Criteria for evidence-based treatments proposed by Division 12 of the American Psychological Association were also applied and found to be met for a number of conditions, including PTSD. Neurological mechanisms that may be involved in these surprisingly strong findings are also considered.

 

Hartung, J. & Stein, P.  (2012).  Telephone delivery of EFT (emotional freedom techniques)
            remediates PTSD symptoms in veterans. Energy Psychology Journal, 4(1), 33-40.

Telephone-mediated psychotherapy is a resource for persons who have difficulty accessing office visits because of geography, economic restrictions, or fear of stigma. In the present report, phone-delivered Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) was compared with EFT provided in a therapy office while subjects in both conditions also received concurrent standard care. Forty-nine veterans with clinical PTSD symptoms were treated with 6 one-hr sessions, either in an EFT coach’s office (n = 25) or by phone (n = 24). In each condition, some subjects were treated immediately, whereas others received delayed treatment after a 1-month waiting period. No change in PTSD symptom levels was reported by either the phone or office delayed-treatment group following the wait period, whereas both groups improved significantly after EFT treatment. Differences in benefit were found between phone and office delivery methods. SigniÞ cant improvement in PTSD symptoms was found after 6 phone sessions but after only 3 ofÞ ce sessions. A 6-month posttreatment assessment indicated 91% of subjects treated in the ofÞ ce and 67% of those treated by phone no longer met PTSD diagnostic criteria (p < .05). Results suggest that although less efficacious than in-person office visits, EFT delivered via telephone is effective in remediating PTSD and comorbid symptoms in about two thirds of cases.

 

Llewellyn-Edwards, T., & Llewellyn-Edwards, M. (2012, Spring). The effect of EFT
            (emotional freedom techniques) on soccer performance. Fidelity: Journal for the
            National Council of Psychotherapy,
47, 14–19.

This study involved the use of a short session of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) with two English ladies soccer teams. It is a randomized controlled trial with a supporting uncontrolled trial. It was designed to verify the results of an earlier similar American trial involving basketball players. The results show a significant improvement in goal scoring ability from a dead ball situation following a short EFT session. These results support those of the earlier trial.

 

Stapleton, P., Sheldon, T., & Porter, B. (2012).  Clinical benefits of emotional freedom
            techniques on food cravings at 12-months follow-up: A randomized controlled trial. 
            Energy Psychology Journal, 4(1), 13-24.

This randomised, clinical trial tested whether The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) reduced food cravings. This study involved 96 overweight or obese adults who were allocated to the EFT treatment or 4-week waitlist condition. Degree of food craving, perceived power of food, restraint capabilities and psychological symptoms were assessed pre- and post- a 4-week treatment program (mixed method ANOVA comparative analysis), and at 6-month follow-up (repeated measure ANOVA with group data collapsed). EFT was associated with a significantly greater improvement in food cravings, the subjective power of food and craving restraint than waitlist frompre- to immediately post-test (p < .05). Across collapsed groups, an improvement infood cravings and the subjective power of food after active EFT treatment was maintained at 6 months, and a delayed effect was seen for craving restraint. Although there was a significant reduction in measures of psychological distress immediately after treatment (p < .05), there was no between-group difference. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that EFT can have an immediate effect on reducing food cravings and can result in maintaining reduced cravings over time.

 

Connolly, S.M.,  & Sakai, C.E. (2012, in press). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, in press.

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda.  Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group.  Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed. 

 

 

Church, D., Yount, G. & Brooks, A. (2011).   The Effect of Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) on Stress Biochemistry: A Randomized Controlled Trial  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, in press.

Cortisol is a physiological marker for stress. Elevated cortisol levels are associated with accelerated aging, many organic diseases, and psychological conditions such as depression and anxiety. This study examined the changes in cortisol levels and psychological symptoms of 83 non-clinical subjects receiving a single hourlong intervention. Subjects were randomly assigned to either an EFT group, a psychotherapy group receiving a supportive interview (SI), or a no treatment (NT) group. Salivary cortisol assays were performed immediately before, and thirty minutes after the intervention. Psychological conditions were assessed using the SA-45. The EFT group showed clinically and statistically significant improvements in anxiety (-58.34%, p < .05), depression (-49.33%, p < .002), the overall severity of symptoms, (-50.5%, p < .001), and symptom breadth across conditions (-41.93%, p < .001). There were no significant changes in cortisol levels between SI (-14.25%, SE 2.61) and NT (-14.44%, SE 2.67); however cortisol in the EFT group dropped significantly (-24.39%, SE 2.62) compared to SI and NT (p < .01). The reduced cortisol levels in the EFT group correlated with decreased severity in psychological symptoms as measured by the SA-45. These results suggest that salivary cortisol tests may be useful not only for assessing stress physiology, but also as an objective indicator of the impact of mental health treatments in reducing psychological symptoms.  In the current study, EFT was shown to significantly improve both cortisol-related stress levels and self-reported psychological symptoms after a single treatment session.

 

Connolly, S.M., & Sakai, C.E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan
            genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency
            Mental Health, 13
(3), 161-172.

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed. 

Fitch, J.  (2011).  The Efficacy of Primordial Energy Activation and Transcendence (PEAT) for Public Speaking Anxiety. 
Energy Psychology: Theory, Research & Treatment, 3(2).

Background: Primordial Energy Activation and Transcendence (PEAT) is one of the newer energy psychology protocols. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a PEAT protocol on individuals experiencing communication anxiety and compare results with existing protocols such as Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) and Thought Field Therapy (TFT).

Method: The current study (N = 82) examined the efficacy of the PEAT protocol in reducing communication anxiety by measuring anxiety using the Communication Anxiety Inventory Form State (CAI State) before and after a 20-min PEAT treatment for an experimental group and comparing the results with a control group that received no treatment.  University students enrolled in a public speaking class volunteered for participation in the study.

Results: The PEAT process produced a statistically significant downward shift in CAI State scores, relative to the control group, with a medium effect size. A qualitative content analysis of participant interviews also identified themes of effectiveness of the Basic PEAT protocol in reducing public speaking anxiety. The strength of the results indicates a beneficial effect due to the PEAT treatment and that further investigation is warranted.

  

Hodge, P.  (2011).  A Pilot Study of the Effects of Emotional Freedom Techniques in Psoriasis.             
Energy Psychology: Theory, Research & Treatment,
3(2).

The documented relationship between stress and psoriasis suggests that noninvasive means of stress reduction may improve quality of life in persons with psoriasis.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to (a) educate persons with psoriasis in the use of the innovative, self-applied, noninvasive emotional healing intervention Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) and (b) test its effects on psoriasis symptoms.

Method: A time series, within-subjects, repeated measures design was used. Persons with psoriasis (n = 12) were taught EFT in a 6-hr workshop and instructed to use EFT daily. Symptoms were measured using the Skindex-29 questionnaire. Psychological conditions were assessed using the Symptom Assessment-45 (SA-45), which has 9 subscales, and two general scales for the severity (GSI) and breadth (PST) of psychological distress. Participants were assessed pre-intervention, post intervention, and at 1 and 3 month follow-ups.

Psychological symptom severity (GSI) improved post-workshop, demonstrating both clinical (raw score) and statistical significance (-56.43%, p=.043). Improvements (T score) (-50.67%, p=.002) were sustained at three 3-month follow-up (-50.54%, p=.001; -38.43%; p=.002). Symptom breadth (PST) also improved post-workshop clinically (-49.24%, p=.005), and that improvement was sustained over time (-46.93%, p=.019). Skindex-29 scores indicated improvements in emotional distress (-41.56%, p=.002), symptoms (-49.05%; p=.001), and functioning (-58.31%; p=.001) post-workshop, with changes over time to -80.56% (p=<.001), -74.95% (p=<.001), and -89.99% (p=.001) respectively, and at 3 months. Differences by gender were found in psychological symptom severity and skin-related symptom distress.

Conclusion: Participants experienced significant improvement in functioning and psychological, emotional, and physical symptoms.

Jones, S., Thornton, J., & Andrews, H.  (2011).   Efficacy of EFT in Reducing Public Speaking Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, Treatment
, 3(1).

Thirty-six volunteers with Public Speaking Anxiety (PSA) were randomly allocated into a treatment group and wait-list control group. Subjective self-report measures were taken before, during, and after a forty-five minute treatment session with Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT). Behavioural observations were recorded during a 4-minute speech immediately after treatment. Comparisons between groups revealed significant reductions in PSA on all self-report measures, but not in behavioural observations. Changes in scores taken before and after treatment for each participant revealed significant reduction in PSA on all subjective and behavioural measures. A significant reduction in PSA as measured by Subjective Units of Discomfort was demonstrated within the first 15 minutes of treatment with EFT, with further significant reductions also demonstrated at 30 and 45 minutes. EFT was found to be a quick and effective treatment for PSA.

 

Karatzias, T., Power, K. Brown, K. , McGoldrick, T., Begum, M., Young, J., Loughran, P.,Chouliara, Z. & Adams, S. (2011).  A controlled comparison of the effectiveness and             efficiency of two psychological therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs. emotional freedom techniques.  Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 199(6), 372-378.

The present study reports on the first ever controlled comparison between eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and emotional freedom techniques (EFT) for posttraumatic stress disorder. A total of 46 participants were randomized to either EMDR (n = 23) or EFT (n = 23). The participants were assessed at baseline and then reassessed after an 8-week waiting period. Two further blind assessments were conducted at posttreatment
and 3-months follow-up. Overall, the results indicated that both interventions produced significant therapeutic gains at posttreatment and follow-up in an equal number of sessions. Similar treatment effect sizes were observed in both treatment groups. Regarding clinical significant changes, a slightly higher proportion of patients in the EMDR group produced substantial clinical changes compared with the EFT group. Given the speculative nature of the
theoretical basis of EFT, a dismantling study on the active ingredients of EFT should be subject to future research.
 

 

Palmer-Hoffman, J., & Brooks, A.  (2011).  Psychological Symptom Change after Group             Application of Emotional Freedom Techniques.  Energy Psychology: Theory, Research,             & Treatment, 3(1), 57-72.

A study by J. E. Rowe (2005) examined the effects of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) on psychological conditions such as depression and anxiety. The sample (N = 102) consisted of participants at a weekend workshop taught by Gary Craig, the originator of EFT. Rowe found significant improvements in psychological symptoms from pre- to post-workshop assessments, with significant participant gains maintained on follow-up. The current study examined whether the improvements were attributable to Gary Craig alone or whether similar effects are noted when EFT is delivered by others. This study examined samples of participants at 4 different conferences, in which EFT was taught by others (N = 102). In all 4 conferences, there were significant improvements in the severity and breadth of symptoms pre- and post-workshop (p < .001), and following 3 of the 4 conferences there were significant long-term gains (p < .001). The results indicate that EFT may be effective at reducing psychological symptoms when delivered by individuals other than the method’s founder and that EFT may reliably improve long-term mental health when delivered in brief group treatments.

 


Salas, M., Brooks, A., & Rowe, J.  (2011).  The Immediate Effect of a Brief Energy Psychology Intervention (Emotional Freedom Techniques) on Specific Phobias: A Pilot Study.  Explore, 7, 155-161.

This study examined whether Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT), a brief exposure therapy that combines cognitive and somatic elements, had an immediate effect on the reduction of anxiety and behavior associated with specific phobias.  The present study utilized a cross-over design with participants (N=22) randomly assigned to either diaphragmatic breathing or EFT as the first treatment. Study measures included a behavioral approach test, Subjective Units of Distress Scale, and Beck Anxiety Inventory.  EFT significantly reduced phobia-related anxiety and ability to approach the feared stimulus whether presented as an initial treatment or following diaphragmatic breathing. When presented as the initial treatment, the effects of EFT remained through the presentation of the comparison intervention. Further study of EFT for specific phobias is warranted.

  

Stein, P., & Brooks, A.  Efficacy of EFT Provided by Coaches vs. Licensed Therapists in Veterans with PTSD.  (2011). 
Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 3(1).

Background: EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) is a validated method for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), available to both lay persons and to licensed mental health practitioners (LMP). It is unknown whether results would be significantly different when EFT is administered by licensed practitioners compared to trained lay coaches.

Methods: N=149 veterans with PTSD were approached and 59 were eligible and consented to the study. They were randomized to an active treatment (EFT N=30) and wait list (WL N=29) control group and received treatment from a LMP (N=26) or a coach (N=33).  PTSD was assessed using the PCL-M (PTSD Checklist-Military), and psychological symptoms using the SA-45 (Symptom Assessment-45).  All study participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD on the PCL-M. Participants received 6 sessions of EFT over the course of a month.  Questionnaires were repeated after 3 and 6 EFT sessions, and at 3 and 6 months. Wait list was assessed at intake and one month before beginning EFT sessions.

Results: Results are based on post-intervention data from the combined EFT and WL groups. Significant declines in the percent meeting PTSD diagnostic criteria were seen after 3 sessions of EFT with 47% of coach and 30% of LMP participants still meeting PTSD diagnostic criteria. Improvements continued to be seen after 6 sessions (17% coach, 10% LMP) and were sustained at 3 months (17% coach, 11% LMP). Although the percent meeting clinical PTSD criteria increased slightly at 6 months (24% coach, 17% LMP), the overwhelming majority of vets with PTSD treated with EFT remained free of clinically-defined PTSD. The trend for better outcomes for LMP did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusion: Six sessions of EFT, whether administered by a coach or an LMP is efficacious in treating PTSD among veterans suggesting that EFT provided by lay coaches would be an effective strategy to address PTSD in this population.

 

Temple, G., & Mollon, P.  (2011).  Reducing Anxiety in Dental Patients using EFT: A Pilot Study.  
Energy Psychology: Theory, Research & Treatment, 3(2).

Adult patients awaiting dental treatment were screened for self-reported anxiety using an 11-point Likert scale. Those in the higher half of the range (n = 30) received a 10-min intervention consisting of a 4-min Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) explanation and 6-min treatment. All patients reported a decrease in subjective anxiety, with a mean pretreatment score of 8.03 and a posttreatment score of 3.03. Paired  t tests revealed a statistically significant decrease (p < .001). These results are consistent with other published reports of EFTs efficacy for anxiety. They suggest that even a very brief EFT intervention can reduce anxiety and that an additional controlled trial with both observer- and participant-rated measures should be undertaken.

 

Zhang, Ying; Feng, Bin; Xie, Jian-ping; Xu, Fang-zhong; and Chen, Jiong.  Clinical Study on Treatment of the Earthquake-caused Post-traumatic Stress Disorder by Cognitive-behavior Therapy and Acupoint Stimulation.  Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, March 2011; 31(1): 60-63.

Objective: To study the curative effect of acupoint stimulation on the earthquake-caused post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Methods: The 91 PTSD patients in Wenchuan hit by a strong earthquake were randomly divided into a control group of 24 cases treated by the cognitive-behavior therapy, and a treatment group of 67 cases treated by both cognitive-behavior therapy and acupoint stimulation. The scores were evaluated according to Chinese version of the incident effect scale revised (IES-R) and the self-compiled questionnaire for the major post-traumatic psychological condition, and the curative effect was compared between the two groups.

Results: The total scores of IES-R, the scores of all factors and the total scores of the questionnaire in the two groups after treatment were much lower than those before treatment (P<0.01). The comparison of reduction in the factor scores between the two groups showed that the curative effect in the treatment group was better that of in the control group.

Conclusion: The acupoint stimulation is effective for the PTSD patients, with better results than that of cognitive-behavior therapy used alone.

 

 

Baker, A. H.  (2010).  Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) Reduces Intense Fears: A Partial Replication and Extension of Wells et al. (2003).  Energy Psychology: Theory, Research,             & Treatment, (2010), (2)2.

Baker and Siegel inserted a no-treatment control condition in this new study and also changed the comparison condition used. In the Wells study, Diaphragmatic Breathing (which turned out to be quite similar to EFT in its effects on small animal phobias, although not as effective as EFT) was used as the sole comparison. In the Baker-Siegel study, a Supportive Interview condition in which participants were given an opportunity to discuss their fears in a respectful, accepting setting was used. It is quite similar to Rogerian Nondirective Counseling.

 

When Baker and Siegel compared their three groups, the results strongly supported the Wells study. As in the latter, EFT participants improved significantly from pre- to posttest in their ability to walk closer to the feared animal after having received EFT, while the other two conditions showed no improvement in this respect. With respect to the subjective measures used in the new study, EFT participants showed significant decreases on the two SUDS measures of fear, on the Fear Questionnaire, and on a special new questionnaire devised for this study (the FOSAQ). Participants in the other two conditions, Supportive Interview and No Treatment Control, showed no decrease in fear whatsoever on these subjective measures. As in the Wells study, only heart rate showed large but equal changes for each condition.

A minor drawback of the Wells study was that participants rated their expectations of success for the intervention to be used with them before they had actually been assigned to a specific intervention. This detail was corrected in the new study, where participants were told which of the 3 conditions they would receive and after the condition had been described to them only then were they asked to rate the degree to which they thought this described condition would help to reduce their fear. The results? EFT and Supportive Interview did not differ significantly in their mean expectation scores (i.e. participants thought each might help them) but despite equal expectations they did differ markedly in outcome, with EFT superior in terms of results. The Interview and No Treatment control conditions did differ significantly in terms of expectation however ––participants didn’t expect that the no-treatment condition where they would sit and read for 45 minutes would help them very much. Yet despite this, the Supportive Interview did no better than the no-treatment control condition in terms of results. This shows that expectation of the participant cannot explain the superior results obtained by EFT.

Baker and Siegel conducted a follow-up study after a 1.4 years lapse between the time of the original testing and the follow-up. On most measures, the significant effects for the single session of EFT still persisted after this considerable lapse of time and were superior to the results for the two comparison conditions. It is striking that only one session of EFT could still show effects almost one and half years later. This can be said of very few interventions in the field of psychology.

 


Burk, L. (2010).  Single Session EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) for Stress-Related Symptoms After Motor Vehicle Accidents
Energy Psychology: Theory, Research & Treatment, 2(2), 65-72. 

Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are a common cause of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Energy psychology (EP) approaches such as EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) are a new form of exposure therapy used to treat PTSD from a variety of different causes. These techniques provide an attractive alternative to more well-established approaches such as cognitive behavioral therapy because of their potential for accelerated healing similar to what has been demonstrated with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. There are only a few reports in the literature of the use of EP for the treatment of PTSD resulting from MVA. This clinical report presents 3 case histories documenting the use of single-session EFT for the treatment of acute psychological trauma immediately after a car accident, urticaria as a component of acute stress disorder 2 weeks after a car accident, and PTSD and whiplash syndrome 11 months after a car accident. These cases are discussed in the context of a review of the current literature on PTSD after MVA and are followed by recommendations for future research.

 

 

Church, D.  (2010).  Your DNA is Not Your Destiny: Behavioral Epigenetics and the Role of             Emotions in Health.  Anti Aging Medical Therapeutics,13, October 2010.

 

In a series of studies published in 2000 and later, researchers began to demonstrate the importance of epigenetic influences on gene expression. Genes might be silenced through methylation, or their expression facilitated by acetylization. A further step occurred when behaviors and psychological states were noted to regulate the activity of genes. A body of evidence has now been accumulated that assesses the specific genes affected by behavioral influences such as nurturing, by lifestyle interventions such as meditation, by emotions, and by alleviating psychological conditions such as depression, anxiety and PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Comparisons of the relative lengths of telomeres in identical twins, who start life with identical genes, show that emotional stress can result in one twin having a cellular age that is as much as 10 years older by age 40.  New studies in the field of energy psychology also indicate that these psychological and emotional stressors may be remediated much more rapidly than previously believed possible, and that behavioral and psychological influences regulate the genes responsible for inflammation, immune function, and cellular regeneration, among others. These advances provide fruitful new avenues for research into the epigenetic properties of simple behavioral and emotional skills such as meditation, the Relaxation Response, and EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques), and point to the potential of these methods as potent anti-aging and medical interventions.

 

Church, D.  (2010b).  The Treatment of Combat Trauma in Veterans Using EFT: A Pilot             Protocol.  Traumatology, 15(1), 45-55. 

With a large number of U.S. military service personnel coming back from Iraq and Afghanistan with posttraumatic

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