Energy Psychology Research: Hierarchy of Evidence
Updated April 4, 2016
Click here to download a PDF of these studies
In this PDF you will find a current list of studies and review articles in the field of Energy Psychology arranged in order of decreasing rigor. This list is based on a schema originally proposed by David Feinstein in a review article published in the APA Journal, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training: "Energy Psychology: A Review of the Preliminary Evidence” (Feinstein, 2008).
- Anecdotal Report: An informal report describing outcomes after applying a psychological method with a single individual.
- Systematic Observational Report: An informal outcome report describing the course of treatment using a single therapeutic approach with multiple clients.
- Clinical Case Study: A formal report which uses established pre- and post-intervention assessments with one subject and details one or more treatment variables.
- Survey Studies of Practitioner Observations: A phenomenological study exploring practitioners’ observations and experiences.
- Uncontrolled Outcome Study: A formal study using established pre- and post-intervention assessments with multiple clients, but lacking randomization and a control/comparison group.
- Randomized Controlled Study with Limited Generalizability: A formal study using established pre- and post-intervention assessments with multiple clients, including at least one control/comparison group and randomization, but lacking follow-up, blinding, and/or rigor in design and execution.
- Randomized Controlled Study with Potentially Strong Generalizability: A formal study using established pre- and post-intervention assessments with multiple clients, including randomization, follow-up, and at least one control/comparison group with means for "blinding" those assessing the outcomes from knowledge of which subjects were in which group. These studies are well-designed and administered so that the effects of each treatment condition can be reliably compared, and generalizations to specified populations can be anticipated with reasonable confidence.
- Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: Scholarly articles which review a series of studies,
generally of one technique for a specific application, and which critique the design,
methodology, statistics and conclusions of those studies.
In addition to the above categories which are ranked in ascending order on this Hierarchy of
Evidence, we have one additional (unranked) category:
- Theoretical and Review Articles: Scholarly articles which discuss theoretical considerations and plausible mechanisms of action for a treatment approach, review existing research studies, and/or discuss clinical applications
based on these studies.
This list was compiled by David Feinstein and John Freedom. If you have additions, corrections or updates to this list, please email firstname.lastname@example.org. Thank you.